The body of tire studs can be made of steel, light alloys based on aluminum or other materials. In recent years, aluminum are often used for the body, as they are lighter than steel, and the less the stud mass, the less road wear. In addition, there is no need to cover aluminum with protective and decorative coatings, because it does not rust. But in Russian conditions, when the road is watered with potash, sodium and other salts, an alkaline reaction is often created. Therefore, aluminum is not always good as it corrodes in an alkaline environment and the wear of the aluminum case can be very fast and aggressive.
A tapered carbide pin is inserted into the hole in the spike body. All over the world, this element is made according to the same principle. This is a classic technology of powder metallurgy, when a mixture of tungsten carbide with various additives is mixed and cobalt, nickel, and iron can be used as a binder. Then all this mixture is mixed, pressed, baked, after which an insert is made from it on automatic press machines.
The body of the spike can be either stamped or chiseled. 97% of studs for passenger car tires are made either by die forging or by pressure (rolling). Most of the cargo and rally studs are still made by turning methods, and so far their conversion to pressure treatment methods is ineffective, because the units are very expensive for this. To this day, it is cheaper to make such studs on turret and lathes than to make special press machines for them.